Condition of young natural oak stands formed after regeneration felling of vegetative oak stands in the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
ARTICLE PDF (Українська)


English oak (Quercus robur L.)
stand origin
economically valuable species
natural regeneration success; дуб звичайний (Quercus robur L.)
походження насаджень
господарсько цінні породи
успішність природного відновлення

How to Cite

Ткач, В. П., Румянцев, М. Г., Лук’янець, В. А., & Кобець, О. В. . (2022). Condition of young natural oak stands formed after regeneration felling of vegetative oak stands in the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Forestry and Forest Melioration, (140), 12–21.



Regeneration felling is aimed at renewing protective, water conserving and other useful properties of forests, as well as at preserving biodiversity, maintaining and forming stands with a complex species, layer and age structures. They correspond to the principles of close to nature forestry. As a result of such felling, valuable natural oak stands were formed at stationary experimental sites. However, the technological features of the felling have not yet been sufficiently worked out.

The aim of the study was to work out the methods and technologies for transforming vegetative oak stands excluded from the principal use, by means of regeneration felling using even gradual, group-gradual and strip-gradual methods in combination with tending felling, with a focus on the natural stand regeneration.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was established by a group of researchers headed by Professor Viktor Tkach in the forest-park part in the green zones around settlements. The experiment consisted of six variants, each of which covered an area of 1.0 ha. Three experimental variants were aimed at the natural regeneration of oak stands. The other three variants of the experiment were focused on the artificial regeneration of oak stands. The felling was accompanied by a set of measures aimed at promoting natural regeneration of stands.

The studies were carried out according to the generally accepted methods in forestry and forest mensuration in accordance with the requirements for laying out sample plots. Accounting and evaluation of the seedlings, as well as the species in the natural young stands, were carried out on the accounting circular plots by means of the methodology developed by the URIFFM researchers. During the assessment, the amount of oak in the composition of natural regeneration was taken into account, as well as its occurrence, which is determined by the proportion of the number of plots with its presence in the total number of established accounting plots. The obtained data were processed by methods of mathematical statistics using the MS Excel programme package.


Various forms of regeneration felling, along with the measures for promoting natural regeneration, made it possible to develop young oak stands of seed origin in the place of a weakened vegetative oak forest. In all variants, a canopy closure occurred quite quickly, by the fifth or sixth year.

The largest number of regenerated seedlings of economically valuable species was registered in the variant where regeneration felling was carried out as an even gradual cutting in two steps. The smaller number was recorded on the variant where regeneration felling was carried out in a strip-gradual way. The number of seedlings was the lowest in the variant with group-gradual regeneration felling, in particular in the “regeneration window” with an area of 250 m2.

Based on a set of characteristics, regeneration felling carried out in a strip-gradual manner turned out to be the most appropriate. The technological features of the felling in this way are simpler compared to other methods. At that, the forest environment is minimally disturbed on the site, optimal conditions are created for the natural forest regeneration, and higher preservation of plants is ensured during the next felling.


Regeneration felling can be used to transform weakened vegetative oak stands into resilient mixed oak stands of natural seed origin. The felling is carried out in various ways in combination with measures promoting natural regeneration and with the obligatory consideration of the oak fruiting periodicity.

The strip-gradual method of reforestation felling with 25 m wide felled strips turned out to be the most appropriate. By carrying out such felling according to the proposed technology, successful natural regeneration of oak and other economically valuable species can be achieved.

2 Figs., 3 Tables, 35 Refs.
ARTICLE PDF (Українська)


About approval of the Instruction on design, technical acceptance, accounting and quality assessment of forestry objects. 2010. [Electronic resource]. Order of the State Forestry Committee of Ukraine No 1046/18341 dated 5 November 2010. 90 p. Available at: (accessed 14.09.2021) (in Ukrainian).

Alder, D. C., Fuller, R. J., Marsden, S. J. 2018. Implications of transformation to irregular silviculture for woodland birds: A stand wise comparison in an English broadleaf woodland. Forest Ecology and Management, 422: 69–78.

Atramentova, L. A. and Utevskaya, O. M. 2008. Statistical methods in biology. Gorlovka, Likhtar, 248 p. (іn Russian).

Elek, Z., Kov?cs, B., Aszal?s, R. Boros, G., Samu, F., Tinya, F., ?dor, P. 2018. Taxon-specific responses to different forestry treatments in a temperate forest. Scientific Reports, 8: 16990.

Fedrowitz, K., Koricheva, J., Baker, S. C., Lindenmayer, D. B., Palik, B., Rosenvald, R., Beese, W., Franklin, J. F., Kouki, J., Macdonald, E., Messier, C., Sverdrup-Thygeson, A., Gustafsson, L. 2014. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51: 1669–1679.

Forest inventory sample plots. Establishing method. Corporate standard 02.02-37-476:2006. 2007. Valid from May 1, 2007. Kyiv, Ministry of Agrarian Policy of Ukraine, 32 p. (in Ukrainian).

Gustafsson, L., Baker, S. C., Bauhus, J., Beese, W. J., Brodie,A., Kouki, J., Lindenmayer, D. B., L?hmus, A., Pastur, G. M., Messier, C., Neyland, M., Palik, B., Sverdrup-Thygeson, A., Volney, W. Jan A., Wayne, A., Franklin, J. F. 2012. Retention forestry to maintain multifunctional forests: A world perspective. Bioscience, 62: 633–645.

Hrom, M. M. 2010. Forest mensuration. Lviv, RVV NLTU, 416 р. (in Ukrainian).

Hudyma, V. D., Parpan, Т. V., Plikhtiak, P. P. 2018. The functional and age structure of the mountain forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 133: 71–77 (іn Ukrainian).

Jaloviar, P., Sedm?kov?, D., Pittner, J., Jar?u?kov? Dankov?, L., Kucbel, S., Sedm?k, R., Saniga, M. 2020. Gap structure and regeneration in the mixed old-growth forests of national nature Reserve Sitno, Slovakia. Forests, 11(1): 81–104.

Kobets, O. V., Rumiantsev, M. Н., Luk’yanets, V. A., Musienko, S. І. 2022. The condition of natural oak young stands of State Enterprise ‘Kharkiv Forest Research Station’ after regeneration felling in a group-gradual ways. In: Scientific readings named after V.M. Vynogradov. Proceedings of of the 4th All-Ukrainian Scientific and Practical Conference, 26–27 May 2022. Kherson, Ukraine, р. 20–23 (іn Ukrainian).

Kopiy, L. I., Fizyk, I. V., Baran, S., Lavnyy, V. V., Kopiy, S. L., Presner, R. B., Agij, V. 2017. Natural seed reproduction of oak plantations as an element close to the nature of forestry. Scientific Bulletin of UNFU, 27(9): 9–13 (іn Ukrainian).

Krynytskyi, H. T. and Cherniavskyi, M. V. 2016. The future of forest ecosystems.Conceptual principles of introduction of close-to-nature forestry in Ukraine. Forest and Hunting Journal, 2: 12–15 (in Ukrainian).

Krynytskyi, H. T., Chernyavskyi, M. V., Krynytska, O. H., Dejneka, A. M., Kolisnyk, B. I., Tselen, Y. P. 2017. Close-to nature forestry as the basis for sustainable forest management in Ukraine. Scientific Bulletin of UNFU, 27(8): 26–31.

Luk’yanets, V. A. and Rumiantsev, M. Н. 2020. The experience of regeneration felling by strip-gradual ways in the oak forests of the Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. In: Research on forest and urban ecosystems for sustainable development. Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, 22 September 2020. Kyiv, Ukraine, р. 54–55 (іn Ukrainian).

Meshkova, V. L., and Didenko, M. M. 2017. Аge structure and survival of natural oak stands in the Left-bank Forest-Steppe. The Bulletin of Kharkiv National Agrarian University. Series: Soil science, agricultural chemistry, agriculture, forestry, and soil ecology, 1: 155–164 (in Ukrainian).

Pasternak, P. S. (Eds.). 1990. Forester’s Reference. Kyiv, Urozhay, 295 р. (іn Russian).

Peura, M., Burgas, D., Eyvindson, K., Repo, A., M?nkk?nen, M. 2018. Continuous cover forestry is a cost-e?cient tool to increase multifunctionality of boreal production forests in Fennoscandia. Biological Conservation, 217: 104–112.

Pogrebnyak, P. S. 1968. General forestry. Moscow, Kolos, 440 р. (in Russian).

Pukkala, T. 2016. Which type of forest management provides most ecosystem services? Forest Ecosystems, 3: 9.

Recommendations for conduction of complex felling in lowland forests and forests of the Mountainous Crimea. 2017. Tkach, V. P. (Ed.). Kharkiv, URIFFM, 14 p. (in Ukrainian).

Regulations for forest inventory of Ukraine. Field works. 2006. Irpin (in Ukrainian).

Regulations for improving the qualitative composition of forests. 2007. [Electronic resource]. Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No 724 dated 12 May 2007. Available at: (accessed 14.09.2021) (in Ukrainian).

Rumiantsev, M. H. 2020. The structural and functional distribution of oak stands of Left-bank Forest-steppe zone. Scientific Bulletin of UNFU, 30(1): 49–54.

Rumiantsev, M. Н. and Luk’yanets, V. A. 2021. The experience of regeneration felling by uniform and gradual ways in the oak forests of the Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. In: Modern problems of forestry and ecology: solutions (Faculty of Forestry and Ecology – 20 years). Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, 7–8 October 2021. Zhytomyr, Ukraine, р. 150–152 (іn Ukrainian).

Rumiantsev, M., Luk’yanets, V., Musienko, S., Mostepanyuk, A., Obolonyk, I. 2018. Main problems in natural seed regeneration of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) stands in Ukraine. Forestry Studies, 69: 7–23. https://doi:10.2478/fsmu-2018-0008

Sanitary Forests Regulations in Ukraine. 2016. [Electronic resource]. Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No 756 dated 26 October 2016. Kyiv, 20 р. Available at: (accessed 14.09.2021) (іn Ukrainian).

Tinya, F., Kov?cs, B., Aszal?s, R. T?th, B., Cs?p?nyi, P., N?meth, C., ?dor, P. 2019a. Data for: Initial regeneration success of tree species after di?erent forestry treatments in a sessile oak-hornbeam forest. Mendeley Data v2.

Tinya, F., Kov?cs, B., Pr?tt?l?, A., Farkas, P., Aszal?s, R., ?dor, P. 2019b. Initial understory response to experimental silvicultural treatments in a temperate oak-dominated forest. European Journal of Forest Research, 138: 65–77.

Tkach, V. P., Luk’yanets, V. A., Kuprina, N. P., Rumiantsev, M. G. 2014. The results of studies on weakened coppice oak stand reformation in the Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 125: 72–78 (in Ukrainian).

Tkach, V. P., Luk’yanets, V. A., Tarnopіlska, O. M., Rumyantsev, M. G. 2018. Ways for reconstruction of noncommercial coppice oak stands in Left-bank Forest-Steppe zone. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 132: 48–56 (іn Ukrainian).

Tkach, V. P., Rumiantsev, M. G., Chygrynets, V. P., Luk’yanets, V. A., Kobets, O. V. 2015. Features of natural seed regeneration in a fresh maple-lime oak forest in the Left-bank Forest-Steppe. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 127: 43–52 (in Ukrainian).

Tkach, V., Rumiantsev, M., Kobets, O., Luk’yanets, V., Musienko, S. 2019. Ukrainian plain oak forests and their natural regeneration. Forestry Studies, 71: 17–29.

Tkach V. P., Rumіantsev M. Н., Luk’yanets V. A., Kobets O. V. 2021. Natural young oak stands of Left-bank Forest-Steppe and features of tending felling there by means of mechanized method. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 139: 20–27 (in Ukrainian).

Vorobyov, D. V. 1967. Methods of forest typology research. Kyiv, Urozhay, 388 р. (іn Russian).

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.