The article presents the results of viticulture and fruit growing on Low Dnieper sands. In order to use forest-free areas of Low Dnieper sands for agriculture, there were attempts to grow grains, vegetables, melons, fruit crops, in particular, grapefruits, lemons, figs, pomegranate, persimmon, tea, laurel, strawberry, winter rye, African millet, fodder watermelon, corn, potatoes, lupine, and others under local conditions. However, the local conditions were the most favourable only for wine-growing and gardening.
The aim of the study was to summarize the long experience in creating technologies for planting, growing and protecting gardens and vineyards, selecting and disposing of its own varieties of wine and table grapes, in selection and breeding of fruit varieties for Low Dnieper sands, and in identifying pest and disease protection features.
Materials and methods
The main method of research was the analysis of literary sources, in particular of scientific reports and publications on the topics of viticulture and fruit production, which were developed at the enterprise during the active production and scientific period.
Two laboratories were established in the State Enterprise “Steppe branch of Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration (URIFFM) named after V. M. Vinogradov”. There were experimental wine production facility and fruit storage to create wine samples and study them. The research was carried out according to generally accepted methods and methodological reports in wine-growing and fruit-growing in line with scientific topics.
Results and discussion
Development of industrial viticulture and horticulture on Low Dnieper sands was made possible primarily by the massive reforestation of the region. From 1956 to 1970, 65 thousand hectares of forest were planted. This stopped the movement of sands and allowed the development of viticulture and fruit-growing. The creation of modern grape and fruit plantations in large areas required a scientific support. From 1970 to 1995, 27 scientific topics had been developed in the laboratories of viticulture and fruit production. Ampelographic collection had also been established in which 1,204 introduced grape varieties were tested and the following varieties were selected and adapted to conditions of Low Dnieper sands: Sauvignon, Saperavi, Saperavi North, Rkatsiteli, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Syenso, Moldova, and others. 'Olympic Games' and '40 Years of Victory' varieties were included in Ukraine's Register of Varieties. As a result of scientific and research work, about 10 recommendations were developed. In the field of winemaking, L. Alistratova developed a technology for creating dessert wines Cabernet Dnieper, Gilea, and Pretty Oksana as well as Madeira and port wine, which produced from varieties selected in the Steppe branch. In fruit growing laboratory, the fruit crops growing technology using low-growing scion was developed for sandy soil conditions. Also, technological processes for raising the economic efficiency of growing fruit crops have been improved.
An integrated system of grape protection from pests and diseases was developed by Z. Kochenko. As a result of long-term research made by I. O. Onishchuk and V. G. Terlich, the scientists of the Steppe branch of URIFFM, the advantage of the technical varieties of their own selection over the introduced ones have been proved.
The long-term researches of scientists have revealed that the introduction of comprehensive resistant grape varieties bred in the Steppe Branch of URIFFM stabilized yields of grapes over the years. Scientific support in the field of viticulture and fruit growing allowed achieving outstanding results for fruit and wine growing on sands of Low Dnieper region and facilitated harvesting.