Comprehensive assessment of Scots pine clone seed orchard progenies by growth characteristics and resistance traits in the Forest-Steppe zone of Kharkiv region
ARTICLE PDF (Українська)


Heterobasidion annosum
“conditionally resistant” trees сорти-популяції
коренева губка
«умовно стійкі» дерева

How to Cite

Дишко , В., Ошако , Т., & Боровик , П. (2023). Comprehensive assessment of Scots pine clone seed orchard progenies by growth characteristics and resistance traits in the Forest-Steppe zone of Kharkiv region. Forestry and Forest Melioration, (143), 61–72.



Clonal seed orchards (CSOs) are the main and most promising objects of the permanent forest seed base. The prospects of using seed material obtained from CSOs are assessed by testing their seed progenies. During the test, the main attention is paid to the intensity of growth in height and diameter, trunk shape, and health condition of the trees; however, unfortunately, the traits that would directly or indirectly indicate disease resistance are not taken into account.

Heterobasidion annosum s. l. infects pine stands and causes significant wood losses and a decrease in the protective properties of forests. The absence of objective criteria for assessing the degree of resistance of Scots pine to this pathogen prompts the search for markers of tree resistance to this disease. An important role in ensuring the resistance of Scots pine to unfavorable environmental factors, including root rot, can be played by the weight of seeds, the density of needles on shoots, the parameters of the conductive system of needles in the mid-section, the width of layers of latewood, and the intensity of the release of oleoresin from micro-wounds. A comprehensive assessment of CSOs progenies, taking into account the traits that predict the resistance to root rot, will allow the identification of the most promising ones for cultivation in local conditions.

The study aimed to improve the existing integrated approach to the evaluation of Scots pine seed progenies using methods of diagnosing trees for resistance to root rot and selecting the most promising ones in the forest-steppe zone in Kharkiv region.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted in Scots pine variety tests established in Guty Forestry (Slobozhansky forest office, Kharkiv region, Ukraine), where the CSO progenies from Kharkiv, Kyiv, and Volyn regions grow. The progeny grown from seeds harvested in Guty Foresry were used as a local control (Guty-control) for all of the variants, and those grown from seeds harvested in the state forest enterprises of the corresponding regions were used as regional controls (Kharkiv-control, Kyiv-control, Volyn-control). The height, diameter, straightness of the stems, and health condition of trees in variants were determined.

The prospects of using the seeds of CSO progenies in the local environment of Kharkiv region were assessed using the scale of the comprehensive assessment presented in the variety testing method (total points 5–20) and with the addition of traits of H. annosum s. l. resistance (total number of points 5–45).


A comprehensive assessment of the variants according to the scale of the forest species variety testing method by growth and condition showed that four CSO progenies with a total score of 10–15 points were promising in the study area. The variants 'Kyivskyi-3' and 'Prykhylkivskyi-2' were the best (total score of 15 points). To assess the potential of using seeds from CSOs in areas vulnerable to the risk of root rot infection, we considered additional traits of resistance, namely seed weight, the density of needles on shoots, parameters of the conductive system of needles at the mid-section, width of latewood layers, and intensity of oleoresin release from micro-wounds. The results of the scoring indicate that the best candidates for reforestation in such areas are the varieties from Kharkiv, Kyiv, and Volyn regions.


The use of annosum resistance traits for the integrated assessment of Scots pine allowed the identification of differentiation between variants in terms of resistance to root rot and to identify the most promising ones for cultivation in Kharkiv region. The effectiveness of using these traits as resistance markers requires further confirmation. The results of the comprehensive assessment indicate the feasibility of using seeds from CSO to create sustainable and productive forests in the forest-steppe zone in Kharkiv region.

2 Figs., 3 Tables, 31 Refs.
ARTICLE PDF (Українська)


Andreieva, V., Voitiuk, V., Kychyliuk, O., Hetmanchuk, A. 2020. Silvicultural and breeding evaluation of Scots pine half-siblings in Volyn region. Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University Scientific Bulletin. Series: Biological Sciences, 2(390): 8–15 (in Ukrainian).

Asiegbu, F. O., Adomas, A., Stenlid, J. A. N. 2005. Conifer root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sl. Molecular plant pathology, 6 (4): 395–409.

Bilir, N., Prescher, F., Lindgren, D., Kroon, J. 2007. Variation in seed related characters in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris. In Seed Orchards Genetic Considerations on Function, Management and Seed Procurement. New Forests; Dordrecht: 36 (2): 187–199.

Carson, S. D. and Carson, M. J. 1989. Breeding for resistance in forest trees-a quantitative genetic approach. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 27(1): 373–395.

Deflorio, G., Horgan, G., Woodward, S., Fossdal, C. 2012. Gene expression and metabolism of phenolic compounds in Sitka spruce clones inoculated with Heterobasidion annosum. Proceeding of the XIII International Conference on Root and Butt Root of Forest Trees. Firenze (FI) – S. Martino di Castrozza (TN), Italy, 4th–10th September 2012. University Press, Firenze, p. 17–21.

Dyshko, V. A. and Torosova, L. O. 2016a. Features of growth processes of Scots pine in plantation affected by root rot. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 128: 134–142 (in Ukrainian).

Dyshko, V. A. and Torosova, L. O. 2016b. Peculiarities of morphometric and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the stand affected by root rot. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 129: 153–161 (in Ukrainian).

Dyshko, V. A., Ustskyy I. M., Mykhaylichenko O. A. 2015. Morphological and biochemical differences of trees with different resistance to annosum root rot. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 126: 218–224 (in Ukrainian).

Gori, Y., Camin, F., Cherubini, P., La Porta, N. 2011. Tree-ring as proxies of stress caused by Heterobasidion parviporum at three different mature stands in Trentino. XIII Conference "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees". IUFRO Working Party 7.02. 01: 62.

Haapanen, M., Velling, P., Annala, M. L. 1997. Progeny trial estimates of genetic parameters for growth and quality traits in Scots pine. Silva Fennica, 31(1): article id 5605.

Hammer, D. and Harper, D. A. 2001. Past: paleontological statistics software package for educaton and data anlysis. Palaeontologia electronica, 4(1), 1–9.

Hayda, Y., Los, S., Yatsyk, R., Tereshchenko, L., Shlonchak, G., Mytrochenko, V., Neyko, I., Samodai, V., Smashnyuk, L., Klisz, M. 2019. Seed orchards in Ukraine: past, present and prospects for the future. Folia Forestalia Polonica, 61: 284–298.

Holmes R. J. 1994. Dendrochronology Program Library-Users Manual. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

IUFRO, 2017. Proceedings of IUFRO Seed OrchardConference 2017, 4–6 September 2017, B?lsta, Sweden. Funda, T. & Hallingb?ck, H. (Eds.).

Krynytskiy, G., Voytiuk, V., Andreeva, V. 2010. New approaches in groundwork of early diagnostic method of growth of posterities of plus trees of Scotch pine. The nature of Western Polissia and adjacent territories: collection of scientific works of the Volyn National University named after Lesya Ukrainka, 7: 107–117 (in Ukrainian).

Ladeyshchikova, E. I., Pobegailo, A. I., Bely, G. D. et. al. 1974. On the causes of the predisposition of pine trees on old arable lands to disease. In: Root rot. Kharkiv. Prapor, p. 22–31 (in Russian).

Lindgren, D. 2013. Seed orchards and aspects on supporting tree breeding. In: Challenges and Opportunities for the World’s Forests in the 21st Century. Springer, p. 481–487.

Los, S. A., Tereshchenko, L. I., Gayda, Yu. І., Ustimenko, P. М. 2014. State of forest genetic resources in Ukraine. Kharkiv, Planeta-Print, 138 р.

Mar?iulynas, A., Sirgedait?-???ien?, V., ?emaitis, P., Baliuckas, V. 2019. The resistance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) half-sib families to Heterobasidion annosum. Forests, 10(3): 287.

Mazhula, O. S. 2009. Test plantations of artificial varieties-populations of Scots pine. Scientific Bulletin of UNFU, 19(11): 17–20 (in Ukrainian).

McKeand, S., Jett, J., O’Berry, S., Heine, A. 2017. New challenges for seed orchard management of loblolly pine in the southern US. Proceedings of IUFRO Seed Orchard Conference, 2017, p. 4–6.

Methodology of variety testing of forest tree species. Departmental test (new edition). 2020. [Los, S. et all.]. Kharkiv, URIFFM, 37 p. (in Ukrainian).

Musienko, S., Luk’yanets, V., Tarnopylska, O., Kobets, O., Babenko, V. 2018. Merchantability and assortment structure of pine stands affected by root rot in the Volyn Polissya region, Ukraine. Central European Forestry Journal, 64: 96–103.

Napiera?a-Filipiak, A. and Filipiak, M. 2012. Higher resistance of the offspring of Scots pine trees resulting from natural regeneration in old foci of Heterobasidion annosum root rot. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 27(8): 794–799.

Osadchuk, L. S. 2013. Morphological and anatomical parameters of Scots pine needles in trees of different categories of resin productivity. Scientific Bulletin of UNFU, 23.8: 18–22 (in Ukrainian).

Rieksts-Riekstin?, R., Zeltin?, P., Baliuckas, V., Bruna, L., Zaluma, A., Kapostin?, R. 2019. Pinus sylvestris breeding for resistance against natural infection of the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. Forests, 11: 23.

Sierota Z. 2013. Heterobasidion root rot in forests on former agricultural lands in Poland: Scale of threat and prevention. Scientific Research and Essays, 8 (47): 2298–2305.

Skr?ppa, T., Solheim, H., Hietala, A. 2015. Variation in phloem resistance of Norway spruce clones and families to Heterobasidion parviporum and Ceratocystis polonica and its relationship to phenology and growth traits. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 30: 103–111.

Tereshchenko, L. I. and Dyshko, V. A. 2019. Results of 20-year testing of candidates to synthetic varieties-populations of Scots pine in conditions of Zmiyivske Forestry Enterprise in Kharkiv Region. Forestry and Forestry Melioration, 134: 33-42 (in Ukrainian).

Tkachuk, V. I. and Ustsky, I. M. 2002. Soil conditions of pine plantations in Zhytomyr region affected by root rot. Scientific Bulletin of UNFU, 12(4): 143–150 (in Ukrainian).

V?zquez-Gonz?lez, C., Zas, R., Erbilgin, N., Ferrenberg, S., Rozas, V., Sampedro, L. 2020. Resin ducts as resistance traits in conifers: linking dendrochronology and resin-based defences. Tree Physiology, 40 (10): 1313–1326.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.